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Peer Review  
05:49pm 05/12/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
Peer Review Memo
From all my classmates the biggest thing they noticed was the organization of my paper was very off. I myself sort of knew from the start because for the most part my rough draft was copy and pasted from my old papers with me adding a few transition sentences. I learned from classmates that this was not going to fly. Basically each classmate helped me in a different way to show me how to rearrange my paper and helped to show me the main point of each of my paragraphs in order to help me do so.
As for my two classmates papers that I reviewed, they seemed to have the organization down better than I did. One paper was very informal in a lot of the language used and I pointed that out as well as there were many sentences that didn’t make sense as if they were missing words or something was left out. The only other thing I noticed was there was a paragraph that went into detail about a “new technology” and its costs and how it is done. It seemed to me like this was off topic of the main whole paper and seemed like it came from one the shorter papers we did. It definitely did not fit the paper in any way and I advised the paragraph be omitted.
The final paper I went over seemed to be fine as far as grammar and organization are concerned. The biggest thing was the title of the paper was “TITLE.” The paper was about heart disease and heart health and many times she stated that it is a battle and used words like attack. I thought it would be appropriate title to be along the lines of “Arm Yourself for the Battle” or anything involving a defensive theme in the title.
 
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sawm ar iiiiiiiii  
05:33pm 14/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
In order to understand the controversy of OxyContin one must know the terminology that surrounds it. Addiction is classified as abusing a drug in order to reach a high, euphoria, or other desired effects. Addicts abuse drugs often to alleviate the burdens of life. Tolerance can often be confused with addiction but they are very different. Tolerance is when someone taking a drug for period of time begins to need a larger dosage in order to reach the same effect that they used to receive from a smaller dosage. Both addicts and legal users of drugs experience tolerance if they are taking it for a continued period of time. Physical dependence is when someone taking a drug will experience a physical need for the drug after a period of time. The person will suffer withdrawal symptoms when the drug is absent from their system. Once again, both addicts and legal users can experience physical dependence. Neither tolerance or physical dependence are a sole predictor of addiction.

Libby, Ronald. Pain Relief Network. The DEA’s OxyContin Action Plan: An Unproven Drug Epidemic. Retrieved on Nov. 11, 2007. <http://www.painreliefnetwork.org/prn/the-deas-oxycontin-action-plan-an-unproven-drug-epidemic.php>
 
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sumRE  
05:31pm 14/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
“On December 15, 2003 the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador announced the establishment of a Task Force to assess the extent of the abuse of OxyContin in the province and to develop a comprehensive plan to deal with the issue.” (OxyContin Task Fore, par.1) The OxyContin task force in Canada shows that the problem is not only limited to the U.S. but is also relevant in Canada. The task force reports many things such as what OxyContin is, the nature and extent of the problem of OxyContin abuse, the best practices of treatment and damage reduction, and their future plans. The force is beginning to discuss the best way to get the information out to the Canadian public to help inform and detour the population from the dangers of abuse. One option being discussed is to have the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse and Resistance Education) program begin to inform children in schools of the dangers and raise awareness.
The fact that OxyContin is now being considered to be included in the dare program is a major red flag that abuse is out of control. The problem is a major concern of both the U.S. and Canada alike, but at the same time swift actions are being taken to try to solve the problem.


Health and Community Sites. The Oxycontin Task Force. 2004. Retrived on Nov. 11, 2007. http://www.health.gov.nl.ca/health/publications/oxycontininterim
 
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summary  
05:30pm 14/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
A way to begin deducing whether or not a patient is addicted is to have them keep a diary of when they take their medication and the conditions and dosages on which it taken. If a patient is saving up doses and taking them all at once it can be a sign of addiction. Also situation such as taking the medication on an empty stomach or with alcohol can show signs of addiction. The diary will give the physician a record of these things and he can then ask the patient about it to early diagnose addiction and react as needed. Some patients use their pain meds to decrease depression, insomnia, or anxiety. It is important to ask the patient whether any of these things are troubling him or her and how he or she deals with it. A physician could ask the patient to keep record of how they are feeling emotionally in the diary each time they take the drug.
The largest and most important indicator of addiction is a decrease in the overall well-being of the patient despite the efforts at pain control. If the patient is not improving and is actually worsening socially and mentally, despite the efforts made, it is the surest sign that the patient is addicted.

Pasero, Christine. "When Does “Drug Seeking” Behavior Signal Addiction" American Journal of Nursing Vol.97. No.5 (1997) : pg.17-18
 
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summerE  
05:28pm 14/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
It is difficult to manage the pain of a patient. On one hand, there is a patient in pain who has medication that either is not strong enough or is not given enough. On the other hand there is the physician who is cautious about prescribing medicine that could lead to overdose or addiction.
Over the years it has been proven that the most reliable method of pain evaluation is asking the patient. This eliminates problem such as overestimating and or underestimating the pain by the physician. Many times physicians will base the level of pain off of symptoms and behaviors which is not a reliable method because different patients react differently to certain levels of pain and discomfort.
There is no clean cut method of determining addiction but there are methods of determining if a patient is not addicted and is just experiencing dependence or tolerance. In order to tell if a patient is becoming addicted one must first realize the difference between a patient building tolerance to the drug and abuse. Tolerance is a natural event that occurs which the patient needs a higher dosage to experience the same effect of pain relief. Any patient taking pain meds for a long period time will develop a level of physical dependence. This means when not taking the meds for a period of time they will have withdrawal symptoms. It is important for physicians to not mistake dependence or tolerance for addiction and let their patient’s pain go on untreated.

Heidrich, George. "Helping the Patient in Pain." American Journal of Nursing Vol.82. No.12 (1982) : pg.1828-1835
 
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some are E  
05:56pm 05/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
As far as the midwest is concerned, Oxycontin is making a leap in popularity like nothing before it. It has come to be called the "heroin of the midwest." Addicts say that it is the most purest form of heroin they have tried. A reason Oxycontin is so popular in the midwest is that the area is far from heroin and cocaine supply centers. The midwest also has a large medical and pharmaceutical community. The drug is very contraversial because it has defenders behind it. Doctors and patients describe it as medical break through that is liberating many people from chronic pain. Dr. J. David Haddox says, "We have to make sure physicians and law enforcement and pharmacists ... are aware, and make sure we do all we can to minimize drug abuse,” he said. “At the same time, we need to do all we can to make the drug available to patients who have legitimate needs.” (Haddox, par. 41)


Schaefer, Walt. “OxyContin: Pain drug becomes the 'heroin of the Midwest'.” The Enquirer 7 Feb 2001
mood: distresseddistressed
 
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Summer E  
05:52pm 05/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
OxyContin is an opioid that is prescribed by doctors in order to treat patients with moderate to severe pain disorders. It was released in 1995 by Purdue Pharma and was approved by the FDA in 1996 when it was finally marketed. The active ingredient in OxyContin is OxyCodene. OxyCodene is a synthetic opioid with properties similar to morphine. OxyContin is labeled a Schedule II drug by the Controlled Substance Act. This means it is a legal drug that is under the maximum amount of government control and regulation.
When OxCcontin was finally marketed doctors welcomed it with open arms and great approval. It was a time-released pain medication that could manage pain for up to twelve hours which was unheard of before. The time release formula was also celebrated for the fact that it deters abuse of the pill; however it was unable to stop abuse. People found easy methods of getting around the time release formula such as crushing, snorting, chewing, or injecting the drug to achieve a high comparable to that of heroin. When OxyContin is abused it can decrease anxiety, cause mental relaxation, and cause intense euphoria among other desirable effects. It was the number one pain killer sold in 2001, but the potential for abuse eventually caught up and slowed the sales.



Office of Diversion Control. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on 30 Oct 2007 <http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/oxycodone/abuse_oxy.htm>
mood: nervousnervous
 
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Sum R E  
05:47pm 05/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
The abuse of OxyContin began in rural areas because of the areas’ job scarcity, high unemployment rates, and many elderly and disabled peoples in the population, but it was not long until the abuse spread. States with the highest rates include W. Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Virginia. “According to the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 975,000 persons were reported using OxyContin for non-medical use.” (Drug Policy Alliance, par.5) Also “Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) officials say that the drug may have played a role in 464 overdose deaths from the year 2000-2001” (Drug Policy Alliance, par.6) Many deaths are the result of first-time users being uneducated about the potential dangers of the pill and using it in large doses.
The rise of OxyContin addiction caused many problems for the doctors prescribing it. Doctors began to be prosecuted for people overdosing on the pills. Some doctors are now afraid to prescribe this drug, which they believe is necessary to treat many patients, in fear of government sanctions. The wide spread abuse of OxyContin stigmatizes doctors who prescribe the pill and makes it difficult for patients in pain to receive it.


Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved on 29 Oct 2007 <http://www.drugpolicy.org/drugbydrug/oxycontin/>
mood: productive
 
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Summary  
05:43pm 05/11/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
After OxyContin was first marketed and doctors began to prescribe pain meds more frequently, the abuse of OxyContin and other pain meds shortly followed. Law enforcement saw it as a problem and thought that health care regulators needed to find an internal solution to the problem or an external solution will be found that will most likely be unfavorable to health care regulators.
Florida had a tough time after the release of OxyContin. Dr. David Brushwood wrote, “On August 29, at a meeting of the Florida Board of Medicine Quality Assurance Committee, coordinated efforts were initiated by law enforcement and health care regulators to solve the problem of OxyContin abuse.” (Brushwood, par.4) This meeting was called after both people abusing OxyContin were overdosing on it, and patients who were prescribed the pill were dying from it, at a rising rate in Florida. At this meeting it was suggested that OxyContin be withdrawn from the market by the FDA until it can be reformulated to prevent its abuse. The law enforcements agencies made it clear that OxyContin was a major problem and something must be done. (Brushwood, par.4-5)


Brushwood, David. Pain & the Law. Legislative Responses to the OxyContin “Crisis” In Florida. Nov., 2001. Retrieved on Oct. 15, 2007. <http://www.painandthelaw.org/mayday/brushwood_111401.php>
 
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Links for myself  
07:01pm 27/10/2007
 
 
toe_knee99
Livejournal changed or something i cant figure out how to make links anymore so im going to make this post for my links til I can figure it out again.


http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2001/02/07/loc_oxycontin_pain_drug.html


http://www.drugpolicy.org/drugbydrug/oxycontin/

http://www.addictionsearch.com/treatment_articles/article/oxycontin-addiction-abuse-and-treatment_16.html

http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/oxycodone/abuse_oxy.htm
 
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